In the circuit model, quantum information is processed by applying gates, which realize a
coherent unitary evolution. In contrast, in Measurement Based Quantum Computation (MBQC),
information is processed by sequences of adaptive single-qubit measurements performed on highly
entangled multipartite states, referred to as graph states. The two models are equivalent,
however the latter has no classical analogue and is uniquely quantum.

The main advantage of MBQC is found in its favorable architectural requirements for some
platforms. Opposed to the application of hundreds of gates, this model shifts the
complication in the state preparation step, which can be performed offline. Afterwards,
the computations needs single-qubit measure, generally regarded as an easy task, and classical
feed-forward electronics and modulators to implement adaptivity.

The working principle of this scheme can be understood as a generalization of the quantum
teleportation, a fundamental of quantum information processing introduced in 1993^{1}
and demonstrated in 1999^{2}.

Quantum Teleportation

The aim of quantum teleportation is to send a quantum state from A (Alice)
to B (Bob), that can be far apart and are only allowed to transmit classical information.
In more detail, the quantum circuits that accomplishes the teleportation of a state is the following:

Alice performs a Bell measurement to the states she holds, then she communicates Bob the
outcome of the measurement. He transforms the state he initially stored into
by applying single-qubit rotations, conditioned on the measurement outcome.

Therefore, instead of directly applying a gate to a state, one can think of teleporting
that state using a modified shared resource. In more detail, an operation can either be
applied to a state , or that state can be teleported
using the modified Bell state . The difference with
the standard approach is clear: instead of performing operations on unknown states, it is just
necessary to construct known states as offline resources.